e course



Grey or Areolate mildew - Ramularia areola(Sexual stage: Mycosphaerella areola)
The disease usually appears on the under surface of the bottom leaves when the crop is nearing maturity. Irregular to angular pale translucent lesions which measure 1-10 mm (usually 3-4 mm) develop on the lower surface, usually bound by vein lets. On the upper surface, the lesions appear as light green or yellow green specks.
A frosty or whitish grey powdery growth, consisting of conidiophores of the fungus, appears on the lower surface. When several spots coalesce, the entire leaf surface is covered by white to grey powdery growth. White or grey powdery growth may occur on the upper surface also. The infection spreads to upper leaves and entire plant may be affected. The affected leaves dry up from margin, cup inward; turn yellowish brown and fall of prematurely.

The pathogen produces endophytic, septate mycelium. Conidiophores are short, hyalineand branched at the base. Conidia are borne singly or in chains at the tips of conidiophores. The conidia are hyaline, irregularly oblong with pointed ends, sometimes rounded to flattend ends, unicellular or 1-3 septate. The perfect stage of the fungus produces perithecia containing many asci. The ascospores are hyaline and usually two celled.
Favourable Conditions

  • Wet humid conditions during winter cotton season,
  • Intermittent rains during North-East monsoon season,
  • Low temperature (20-30˚C) during October-January,
  • Close planting, excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizers,
  • Very early sowing or very late sowing of cotton

Disease cycle
The pathogen survives during the summer in the infected crop residues. The perennial cotton plants and self-sown cotton plants also harbour the pathogen during summer months. The primary infection is through conidia from infected plant debris and secondary spread is through wind, rain splash, irrigation water and implements.

  • Remove and burn the infected crop residues.
  • Rogue out the self-sown cotton plants during summer months.
  • Avoid excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizers/manures.
  • Adopt the correct spacing based on soil conditions and varieties.
  • Spray the crop with Carbendazim at 500g/ha, repeat after a week.
Grow the resistant varieties like Sujatha and Varalakshmi