Co-operative Marketing
            The establishment of co-operative marketing societies was another step which has been taken to overcome the problems arising out of the present system of marketing agricultural produce. The objectives of economic development and social justice can be furthered by channelising agricultural produce through cooperative institutions.
            Private agencies dominate the Indian food grains trade. Farmers complain of the marketing system because they get lower prices, due mainly to high marketing charges and the prevalence of malpractices. The efforts of the government to improve the marketing system of agricultural commodities have been only partially successful in creating healthy conditions for scientific and efficient marketing. Moreover, the progress of regulated markets is not uniform in all areas. The need for strengthening co-operative organization has, therefore, been recognized for the marketing of the produce of farmers and for making inputs available for them at the right price and time. The co-operative institutions are expected to function as competitors of private traders in the market. These organizations pool the produce of the small farmers having a small surplus to market and improve their bargaining power. They have also helped government agencies in the execution of the policy decisions bearing on the procurement and distribution of food grains and other essential commodities.
            A co-operative sales association is a voluntary business organization established by its member patrons to market farm products collectively for their direct benefit. It is governed by democratic principles, and savings are apportioned to the members on the basis of their patronage. The members are the owners, operators and contributors of the commodities and are the direct beneficiaries of the savings that accrue to the society. No intermediary stands to profit or loss at the expense of the other members.
            Co-operative marketing organizations are associations of producers for the collective marketing of their produce and for securing for the members the advantages that result from large-scale business which an individual cultivator cannot secure because of his small marketable surplus.
            In a co-operative marketing society, the control of the organization is in the hands of the farmers, and each member has one vote irrespective of the number of shares purchased by him. The profit earned by the society is distributed among the members on the basis of the quantity of the produce marketed by him. In other words, co-operative marketing societies are established for the purpose of collectively marketing the products of the member farmers. It emphasizes the concept of commercialization. Its economic motives and character distinguish it from other associations. These societies resemble private business organization in the method of their operations; but they differ from the capitalistic system chiefly in their motives and organizations.
            The main functions of co-operative marketing societies are:

  1. To market the produce of the members of the society at fair prices;
  2. To safeguard the members for excessive marketing costs and malpractices;
  3. To make credit facilities available to the members against the security of the produce brought for sale;
  4. To make arrangements for the scientific storage of the members' produce;
  5. To provide the facilities of grading and market information which may help them to get a good price for their produce;
  6. To introduce the system of pooling so as to acquire a better bargaining power than the individual members having a small quantity of produce for marketing purposes;
  7. To act as an agent of the government for the procurement of foodgrains and for the implementation of the price support policy;
  8. To arrange for the export of the produce of the members so that they may get better returns;
  9. To make arrangements for the transport of the produce of the members from the villages to the market on collective basis and bring about a reduction in the cost of transportation; and
  10. To arrange for the supply of the inputs required by the farmers, such as improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.

            The history of co-operative marketing in India dates back to 1912, when the Co-operative Marketing Societies Act, 1912 was passed. The first Co-operative Society was formed in Hubli in 1915 to encourage cultivation of improved cotton and to sell it collectively. In 1918, The South Canara Planters Co-operative Sale Society was formed in the then Composite Madras Province for joint sale of arecanut. The Royal Commission on Agriculture (1928) stressed the need for group marketing instead of individual marketing. The Central Banking Enquiry Committee (1931) also underlined the need for organized marketing. The XI Conference of Registrars of Co-operative Marketing also emphasized the need for cooperative marketing. In 1945, the Co-operative Planning Committee recommended that at least 25 per cent of the marketable surplus should be channelised through Co-operative societies within the next 10 years by forming one society for a group of 200 villages.
           The All India Rural Credit Survey Committee (1954) brought to light the dismal performance of the existing marketing co-operatives. In a simple of 75 districts surveyed, there was no co-operative marketing society in 63 districts. In remaining districts only around one per cent of the total sale of agricultural produce was done through the societies. The committee suggested the establishment of primary co-operative marketing societies and linking of credit with marketing. The First Five Year Plan (1951-56) laid stress on the establishment of agricultural marketing and processing co-operative societies. In 1958, the National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation (NAFED) was established as the apex body of co-operative marketing. In 1963, the National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC) was set up for promoting programmes relating to co-operative societies. The Mirdha Committee (1965) recommended that the membership of agricultural marketing societies should be restricted to the agriculturists and traders should not be allowed to join agricultural marketing societies.
           The Dantwala Committee (1966) stressed the need for co-operation and integration among the various co-operative organizations after reviewing the pattern of co-operative marketing, distribution of inputs to farmers and supply of consumers products. Based on the survey of the co-operative marketing societies in 1968, the Reserve Bank of India recognized that effective linking of credit with marketing was necessary. The All India Rural Credit Review Committee, 1969 also recommended the strengthening of co-operative marketing, with a view to helping the government agencies in the execution of price support programmes. There is a multi-state cooperative marketing Act in place now.
            On the basis of the commodities dealt in by them, the co-operative marketing societies may be grouped into the following types:
(i) Single Commodity Co-operative Marketing Societies
            They deal in the marketing of only one agricultural commodity. They get sufficient business from the farmers producing that single commodity. The examples are Sugarcane Co-operative Marketing Society, Cotton Co-operative Marketing Society and Oilseed Growers Co-operative Marketing Society.
(ii) Multi-Commodity Co-operative Marketing Societies
            They deal in the marketing of a large number of commodities produced by the members, such as foodgrains, oilseeds and cotton. Most of the co-operative marketing societies in India are of this type.
(iii) Multi-purpose, Multi-commodity Co-operative Marketing Societies
           These societies market a large number of commodities and perform such other functions as providing credit to members, arranging for the supply of the inputs required by them, and meeting their requirements of essential domestic consumption goods.
            The co-operative marketing societies have both two-tier and three-tier structure. In the states of Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal, there is a two-tier pattern with primary marketing societies at the taluka level and state marketing federation as an apex body at the state level. In other states, there is three-tier system with district marketing society in the middle. At the national level, NAFED serves as the apex institution. The pattern of the three-tier structure is as follows:
(i) Base Level
            At the base level, there are primary co-operative marketing societies. These societies market the produce of the farmer members in that area. They may be single commodity or multicommodity societies, depending upon the production of the crops in the area. They are located in the primary wholesale market, and their field of operations extends to the area from which the produce comes for sale, which may cover one or two tehsils, panchayat samitis or development blocks.
(ii) Regional/District Level
            At the regional or district level, there are central co-operative marketing unions or federations. Their main job is to market the produce brought for sale by the primary co-operative marketing societies of the area. These are located in the secondary wholesale markets and generally offer a better price for the produce. The primary co-operative marketing societies are members of these unions in addition to the individual farmer members. In the two-tier structure, the State societies perform the functions of district level societies by opening branches throughout the district.
(iii) State Level
            At the state level, there are apex (State) co-operative marketing societies or federations. These state level institutions serve the state as a whole. Their members are both the primary co-operative marketing societies and the central co-operative unions of the state. The basic function of these is to coordinate the activities of the affiliated societies and conduct such activities as inter-state trade, export-import, procurement, distribution of inputs and essential consumer goods, dissemination of market information and rendering expert advice on the marketing of agricultural produce.
           The cooperative marketing network of the country includes 27 state level marketing federations 199 district/regional marketing co-operative societies, and 4398 primary cooperative marketing societies besides NAFED at the national level.
            There are two types of members of co-operative marketing societies:
(i) Ordinary Members
            Individual farmers, co-operative farming societies and service societies of the area may become the ordinary members of the co-operative marketing society. They have the right to participate in the deliberations of the society, share in the profits and participate in the decision making process.
(ii) National Members
            Traders with whom the society establishes business dealings are enrolled as nominal members. Nominal members do not have the right to participate in decision making and share in the profits of the societies.
Sources of Finance
            In 1966, the Dantwala Committee estimated a capital base of Rs.2.00 lakhs for a co-operative marketing society. At 2003 prices, it should be at least Rs.40.00 lakhs. The following are the major sources of finance of a co-operative marketing society:
(i) Share Capital
            Farmer-members and the State Government subscribe to the share capital of co-operative marketing societies. Members may purchase as many shares as they like. They are encouraged to invest sufficiently in the share capital. They are also persuaded to invest their dividend and bonus in the shares of co-operative marketing societies.

(ii) Loans
            Co-operative marketing societies may raise their finance by way of loans from the Central and State Co-operative Banks and from commercial banks by pledging and hypothecation and also by clean credit to the extent of 50 per cent of owned capital.
(iii) Subsidy
            The Co-operative marketing societies get a subsidy from the government for the purchase of grading machines and transport vehicles to meet their initial heavy expenditure. They also get a subsidy for a part of the cost of the managerial staff for a period of 3 years to make them viable.
            The important functions carried out by the co-operative marketing societies are:
(i) Sale on Commission Basis
            Co-operative marketing societies act as commission agents in the market, i.e., they arrange for the sale of the produce brought by the members to the market. The produce is sold by the open auction system to one who bids the highest price. The main advantage, which the farmer-members get by selling the produce through co-operative marketing societies instead of a commission agent, is that they do not have to accept unauthorized deductions or put up with the many malpractices, which are indulged in by individual commission agents. As there is no individual gain to any member in the marketing of the agricultural produce through co-operative marketing societies, no malpractices are expected to be indulged in.
           This type of marketing is not risky for co-operative societies. But sometimes traders in the market form a ring and either boycott the auction or bid a low price when the produce is auctioned on the co-operative marketing societies shops. These tactics of the traders reduce the business of co-operative marketing societies. Therefore, farmers hesitate to take their produce for sale in the market through co-operative marketing societies.
(ii) Purchase of Members' Produce
            Co-operative marketing societies also enter the market as buyers. A society participates in bidding together with other traders, and creates conditions of competition. The commodities thus purchased by a society are sold again when prices are higher.
           This system of the outright purchase of the produce by the society involves the risk of price fluctuations. If the managers of societies lack business experience, they hesitate to adopt the outright purchase system. In 1964-65, the National Cooperative Development Corporation recommended that the outright purchase system should be adopted only by a society which possesses the following qualities:

    1. The society has a trained manager, i.e., one who is capable of understanding the intricacies of the trade;
    2. The society is financially sound and has adequate borrowing facilities;
    3. The society is affiliated to a good viable central level society; and
    4. The society possesses processing facilities.

(iii) Advancement of Credit
            Co-operative marketing societies advance finance to farmers against their stock of foodgrains in the godowns of the societies. This increases the holding power of the farmers and prevents distress sales. Generally, societies advance credit to the extent of 60 to 75 per cent of the value of the produce stored with them. The recoveries are effected from the sale proceeds of the produce of the farmer. This function involves no risk to the society. Moreover, it increases the business.
(iv) Procurement and Price Support Purchases
            Co-operative marketing societies act as agents of the government in the procurement of foodgrains and other agricultural commodities at the announced procurement or support prices.
(v) Other Functions
            The following functions are also carried out by them, depending upon the availability of funds and other facilities:

  1. They assemble the marketable surplus of small and marginal farmers and transport this surplus from villages to the society headquarters for disposal;
  2. They make arrangements for the grading of the produce and encourage producers to sell the produce after grading so that they may get better prices;
  3. They undertake the processing of produce;
  4. They make arrangements for the export of agricultural commodities in collaboration with the State Level Co-operative Marketing Federation and the National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation;
  5. They undertake inter-state trade in agricultural commodities; and
  6. They distribute agricultural production inputs, such as fertilizers improved seeds, pesticides, agricultural implements, and such essential consumer articles as sugar, kerosene oil and cloth.

(vi) Integrated System of Co-operative Marketing
            An integrated programme of co-operative development embracing credit, marketing, processing, warehousing and storage has been formulated. The important features of the integrated system are linking up of credit with marketing, development of agro-processing on co-operative lines and promotion of storage and warehousing.
Cooperative Processing
            Co-operative processing is also making good progress in addition to co-operative marketing. The structure of processing units established in the co-operative sector is of two distinct patterns, i.e., those which are set up by independent processing societies, such as co-operative sugar factories and spinning mills and those which are established as adjuncts of co-operative marketing societies, e.g., small and medium co-operative processing units, such as rice mills, jute baling mills and cotton spinning and processing units.
            Information on the progress of co-operative marketing societies in India is given in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1
Progress of Co-operative Marketing and Processing Societies in India







Primary Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Societies:






(a) Number of societies






(b) Membership (Lakhs)






Value of agricultural produce marketed by Co-operatives (Rs. Crores)






Value of agricultural inputs distributed by Co-operatives (Rs. Crores)






Number of co-operative Sugar factories (licensed)






Number of Cotton Co-operative Ginning & Processing Societies






Total Agro processing units in the co-operative sector





            The value of agricultural produce marketed through the co-operative marketing societies increased from Rs.53 crores in 1955-56 to Rs.7871 crores in 1991-92. The produce marketed through these societies account for 8 to 10 per cent of the marketed surplus. The important commodities marketed by these societies are foodgrains, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables and plantation crops. The progress of co-operative marketing societies has varied from State to State and within each State from commodity to commodity. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Haryana together account for more than 80 per cent of the total agricultural produce marketed through co-operatives in the country.
           The other important function performed by these societies is the marketing of agricultural inputs viz., fertilizers, improved seeds, insecticides, pesticides, agricultural implements and machinery. Over 70,000 retail outlets of these societies deal in these inputs. The value of agricultural inputs marketed by co-operative marketing societies has increased from Rs.36 crores in 1960-61 to more than Rs.2475 crores in 1991-92.
           During the last forty years, the number of Primary Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Societies increased from 3108 in 1960-61 to 7871 in 1991-92. By the end of March, 1992, there were 2933 general purpose primary cooperative marketing societies, 4938 special commodity primary cooperative marketing societies, 191 district/regional marketing societies and 29 state cooperative marketing federations. These apart, there are 16 commodity-marketing federations, National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation (NAFED) and National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) at the national level. The value of produce handled by the cooperatives multiplied manifold from Rs.179 crores in 1960-61 to over Rs.7100 crores in 1991-92. In addition, these institutions had supplied inputs to their members for agricultural activities valued at Rs.2475 crores in 1991-92 compared to Rs.36 crores in 1960-61. The cooperatives have continued to maintain their share at around 30 per cent in the total fertilizers distributed to the farmers in India.
           The cooperatives have constructed warehouses with a total storage capacity of 13.55 million tones by the end of March, 2000 compared to 8.0 lakh tones by the end of March, 1961. For specific commodities viz., cotton and oilseeds, growers societies in cooperative sector also exist at regional level with state level federations at state level to deal with the specific problems in marketing of these crops produced in specific areas. For the benefit of sugarcane growers, there are 231 cooperative sugar factories in the country which provide marketing and price support to the sugarcane growers of their hinterlands. The cooperative sugar factories account for around 60 per cent of the total sugar produced by 408 sugar factories in the country. In northern states, where private sugar factories dominate the cane market, there are several cane growers cooperative societies to manage the supply of cane produced by the farmers to sugar factories. There was also two-fold increase in cotton spinning and processing societies in the country during the last forty years.
           In Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, considerable quantities of the food grains are marketed by co-operative societies. In Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, 75 per cent of sugarcane, in Maharashtra and Gujarat, 75 per cent of cotton, and in Karnataka 84 per cent of plantation crops are marketed by the co-operative societies. However, the progress of co-operative marketing societies has been far from satisfactory in most states of the country because farmer-members do not patronize these societies for the sale of their produce. Instead, they use the services of commission agents.
           The success of cooperative marketing is not universal across commodities, sectors and geographical regions.
(i) The performance of cooperatives in dairy and sugarcane sectors is noteworthy. Dairy cooperatives present the most successful example of cooperative marketing.
(ii) The success of cooperatives and transforming the social and economic landscape of Gujarat state and some other parts of the country is a testimony of the role of cooperatives in agricultural marketing in the country.
(iii) The role of the cooperatives in improving the marketing environment for farmers have also been quiet significant.
           However, the cooperatives as a whole account for only 10 per cent of the total quantities of agricultural commodities marketed by the farmers. This share needs to be improved in the light of predominance of small-scale farmers, technological changes in marketing practices and as a long-term solution for improving farmer's price realization.
Reasons of slow Progress of Cooperative Marketing
            The main reasons of the slow process are:

  1. Co-operative marketing societies are generally located in big markets/towns and quick and cheap transport facilities are not available for the carriage of the produce from the villages to the societies;
  2. Farmers are indebted to local traders and enter into advance contracts with them for the sale of the crop;
  3. Farmers are in immediate need of cash after the harvest to meet their personal obligations. They, therefore, sell their produce to local traders; they cannot wait for the time required to move the produce to the mandi;
  4. There is lack of loyalty among members to co-operative marketing societies because of their poor education and absence of the co-operative feeling;
  5. In some cases rivalries among farmer-members result in indecision, which hampers the progress of the societies;
  6. Members lack confidence in co-operative organizations, for most of the co-operative sector enterprises run at a loss;
  7. The societies do not act as banks for the farmers;
  8. Managers of societies do not offer business advice to members;
  9. Societies do not provide facilities of food and shelter to farmers when they visit the market for the sale of the produce;
  10. The managers of the societies are often linked with local traders and become impersonal to the needs of a majority of small and marginal farmers;
  11. There is lack of sufficient funds with the societies to meet the credit needs of the farmers against pledging of the produce brought for sale. Nor do they make an advance payment of the value of the produce purchased or sold through them;
  12. Co-operative marketing societies are not capable of carrying on their business in competition with traders and commission agents, because of the absence of adequate business expertise among their employees; and
  13. There is a lack of sufficient storage facilities with the societies. They, therefore, try to dispose of the produce soon after their arrival; a fact which results in lower prices for the farmers.

Suggestions for Strengthening of Cooperative Marketing Societies

  1. The area of the operations of the societies should be large enough so that they may have sufficient business and become viable. Most of the societies at present are not viable because of the small volume of their business.
  2. Co-operative marketing societies should develop sufficient storage facilities in the mandi as well as in the villages.
  3. The societies should give adequate representation to the small and marginal farmers in their organizational set-up.
  4. The co-operative feeling among members should be inculcated by proper education by organizing seminars and by the distribution of literature.
  5. In the selection of the officials of co-operative marketing societies, weightage should be given to business experience and qualifications. After their selection, the officials should be given proper training so that they may deal efficiently with the business of the society. The efficiency should be rewarded, wherever possible.
  6. There is a need for bringing about a proper co-ordination between credit and marketing co-operative societies to facilitate the recovery of loans advanced by credit societies, and make available sufficient finance for marketing societies.
  7. The societies should-acquire the transport facility to bring the produce of the members from the villages to the mandi in time and at a lower cost.
  8. Co-operative marketing societies should diversify their activities. They should sell the produce and inputs, and engage in the construction of storage facilities.
  9. Marketing societies, like the private traders, should provide accommodation and the drinking water facility for their members when the latter come to the mandi.
  10. The public procurement and public distribution programmes should be implemented through co-operative marketing societies to increase their business; and
  11. The cooperatives should be made free from government control.

            The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federatiopn of India (NAFED) is an apex organization of marketing cooperatives in the country. It deals in procurement, processing, distribution, export and import of selected agricultural commodities. The NAFED is also the central nodal agency for undertaking price support operations for pulses and oilseeds and market intervention operations for other agricultural commodities.
            The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation (NAFED) was established in October, 1958. The State Level Marketing Federations and the National Co-operative Development Corporation are its members. The head office of NAFED is at Delhi, and its branch offices are located at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. NAFED's area of operation extends to the whole country. It has established branches in all the major port towns and capital cities in the country.

            The main objectives of NAFED are:

    1. To co-ordinate and promote the marketing and trading activities of its affiliated co-operative institutions;
    2. To make arrangements for the supply of the agricultural inputs required by member institutions;
    3. To promote inter-state and international trade in agricultural and other commodities; and
    4. To act as an agent of the government for the purchase, sale, storage and distribution of agricultural products and inputs.

            The NAFED performs the following activities:
(a) Internal Trade
            NAFED is engaged in interstate trade in agricultural commodities, particularly foodgrains, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, species, fruits, vegetables and eggs with a view to assuring better prices to the producers. The objectives of internal trade operations are both the market support to farmers and maintaining steady supply of commodities to consumers of reasonable prices. NAFED purchases agricultural commodities through the co-operatives, public sector organizations and state agencies. Turn over of NAFED over five years period from 2004-05 is presented in Fig. 5.1


Fig. 5.1 Domestic Turn over of NAFED over years

(b) Foreign Trade – Export and Import of Agricultural Commodities
            Exports – Exports of agricultural commodities through the co-operative marketing system developed on a large scale after the establishment of NAFED. The NAFED exports agricultural commodities, particularly onions (canalized), potatoes, ginger, garlic, nigerseed, sesameseed, gum, deoiled cake of groundnut, soyabean and cottonseed, fresh and processed fruits and vegetables; spices – black pepper, cardamom, turmeric, cuminseed, coriander seed; cereals – rice, barley, bajra, jowar, and ragi and jute bags to various countries including Sri Lanka, England, Mauritius, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, the USA and number of African, West Asian and Gulf countries.
           The market intervention undertaken by NAFED has many times helped the growers of such crops as onion, potato, copra, chillies and other's in realizing reasonable prices even in those years when market prices crashed. Export turn over of NAFED in lakhs of Rs. over five years from 2004-05 is presented in Fig. 5.2.

Fig. 5.2 Export Turn Over Of NAFED Over years
           Imports – The NAFED also arranges for the imports of pulses, fresh fruits, dry fruits, nutmeg (Jaiphal), mace (Javitri), wetdates and chicory seeds and inputs particularly fertilizers and machinery as and when asked to do so by the Government.
(c) Price Support Operations
            NAFED is being appointed as the agency of the government to undertake support price purchases of commodities like groundnut since 1976-77, soyabean and mustard seed since 1977-78, gram, tur, moong and urad since 1978-79 and bajra, jowar, maize, barley, toria and sunflower seed since 1985-86. Government of India has designated NAFED as the nodal agency for implementing the price support policy for oilseeds and coarse grains during Seventh Five Year Plan period (1985-90). NAFED has standing instructions to intervene in the market when ruling market price falls below the minimum support levels for oilseeds and pulse crops. Since 1991, NAFED has been designated as nodal agency for undertaking price support operations for oilseeds and pulses on a regular basis. Price support purchases of pulses and oilseeds are shown in table 5.2.
Table 5.2 Procurement of Oilseeds by NAFED under Price Support Scheme



Quantity Procured (Tonnes)


Groundnut Pods
















Mustard Seed




















































Safflower Seed
























Sunflower Seed















































































Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, 2002 and 2003, Directorate of Economics and
Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.

Business in Oilseeds
NAFED procured around 35044 MTs of various oilseeds and oils including Assorted Oils,Copra,Mustard Oil,Mustard Seed,Sunflower Seed and Sunflower Oil valued at Rs. 86.29 crores in outright account, as per details given below:

Purchase of Oil and Oilseeds by NAFED
[ qty. in mts/value in rs.lakhs ]

S.NO             Commodity           Quantity (in MTs)             Value ( lakhs)


1                      Bajra                               1000                                      60.58

2                      Guar                                2592                                    419.70

3                      Jowar                              7105                                    465.09

4                      Maize                            32160                                  2117.20

5                      Paddy                          116025                                 9325.82

6                      Rice                             485519                                43997.85

7                      Wheat                          300614                                31902.49

8                      Barley                              3557                                    295.91

                      Sub Total                       948572                                88584.64


1                      Rice                                 24930                                3337.88

                    Total                                           973502                                  91922.52


A total quantity of around 56293 MTs of various oilseeds valued at Rs. 155.10 crores was sold in outright account during the year 2008-2009.
The details are given as below:
Sales of Oil and Oilseeds by NAFED

S.NO               Commodity                Quantity(in  MTs)      Value( lakhs)


1                      Bajra                                             117                               7.50

2                      Guar                                           2283                           379.69

3                      Jowar                                         2515                           179.46

4                      Maize                                      45771                         3355.48

5                      Paddy                                       66921                         8546.43

6                      Rice                                        447057                       50729.50

7                      Wheat                                     280953                           215.00

8                      Barley                                         3586                           333.18

Sub Total                                                  849203                      95495.52

Business in Pulses
During the year 2008-09 NAFED purchased around 24423 MTs pulses viz. Gram, Masoor, Arhar, Moong, Urad,Rajmah,Moth and Peas,Assorted Pluses valued at Rs. 60.56 crores in its outright account.
The details are given below:
Purchase of Pulses by NAFED
[qty. in mts/value in rs.lakhs ]

S.NO                   Commodity                        Quantity (in  MTs)         Value( lakhs)

1                      Turmeric                                   189.90                                     73.79

2                      Black Pepper                          4023.10                                 5570.70

3                      Cardamom Small                        0.50                                        2.68

4                      Assorted Spices                           0.09                                      50.55

5                      Cloves                                          0.15                                        0.55

6                      Dry Ginger                                  72.06                                     61.91

7                      Methi Seed                                225.60                                     61.56

                        Total                                        4511.40                                 5821.74


During the year 2008-09 a total quantity of around 45085 MTS of various pulses, such as, Gram, Masoor, Moong, Peas, Moong, Rajmah, Arhar, and Urad valued at Rs. 107.62 crores was sold in outright account as per details given below.
Sale of Pulses by NAFED

S.NO                 Commodity                Quantity(in  MTs)      Value( lakhs)

1                      Tumeric                               203.80                              89.23

2                      Red chillies                          533.08                             231.35

3                      Black Pepper                    4006.65                           5058.04

4                      Cardamom Small                   0.35                                 1.71

5                      Assorted Spices                      0.09                               55.15

6                      Dry Ginger                            77.02                               75.64

7                      Cloves -                                   0.01                                 Neg

8                      Methi Seed                          227.39                                72.29

                           Total                                  5048.38                               5583.78

Business in Horticulture Products
During the year 2007-08. NAFED purchased 11764 MTs of various horticultural commodities including Onion, Potato, Apple and fresh fruits & vegetables valued at Rs. 13.55 crores in outright account. The details of various horticultural commodities purchased are given below:
Purchase of Horticulture Commodities by NAFED
                                                                                                                                                                                       [ qty. in mts/value in rs.lakhs ]

S.NO             Commodity            Quantity(in  MTs)            Value ( lakhs)

1                      Rubber                          959.00                               690.28

2                      Tea                                173.42                               159.44

3                      Misc. Items                 9818.20                               671.18

4                      Atta                              -                                            45.46

5                      Sugar                             309.41                                52.54

6                      Palm Oil                     16507.58                            8853.48

7                      Salt                                 293.00                                13.32

8                      Barrel                             791.60                                48.73

                         Total                            28852.21                         10534.43

A total quantity of 5686 MTs of various horticulture items including Onion, Potato and assorted fresh fruits & vegetables of the value of Rs. 6.06 crores was sold in outright account during the year as per details given below:
Sale of Horticultural Commodities by NAFED         

  [ qty. in mts/value in rs.lakhs ]

S.NO               Commodity               Quantity(in  MTs)      Value ( lakhs)

1                      Rubber                                       824.00                                  787.13

2                      Salt                                 293.00                                    13.45

3                      Tea                                 180.63                                  186.46

4                      Misc. Items                  9769.88                                  805.41

5                      Atta                              -                                                 47.72

6                      Sugar                             183.68                                    44.26

7                      Palm Oil                     16368.33                                4053.64

8                      Psyllium                            86.82                                   37.98

9                      Barrel                              791.60                                   49.94

                         Total                            28497.94                               6025.99


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