AGR 301 :: Lecture 04 :: TRITICALE


  • Man made cereal
  • First wheat x rye occurred in Scotland – 1875
    • Initial crosses were sterile
    • First fertile cross was made in Germany in 1888
    • The name Triticate first appeared in Germany in 1935
  • There are Octaploid, tetraploid, hexaploid cultivars
  • Hexaploid is most common
  • Hexaploids of wheat and rye are called primary hexaploid
  • While hexaploid triticale crossed from hexaploid wheat or octoploid triticale are called secondary hexaploids
  • Secondary hexaploids are
    • Increased genomic diversity
  • Triticale is either spring or winter suited
  • They tend to tiller less but have larger inflorescence
  • Majority of triticale cultivars are awned
  • Initial cultivars are
    • Low yielder
    • Tall week straw
    • Shrunken/shriveled kernels
    • High susceptibility to ergot
    • But high protein, high level of amino acids
    • Good for animal nutrition
  • But today
    • They yielding better than wheat
    • Tiller producing
    • Resistance to lodging
    • Resistance to ergot
    • Plump kernels
    • Protein equal to wheat similar bread wheat
    • Suitable for spring and winter seasons
  • But triticale research is not much today
    • Importance to wheat and barley reduced the area and interest in Triticale
    • Nutritional quality is good / better than wheat, preferred by consumers but due reduced production
    • Hard white grain development in Triticale made scope for Triticale

Speciality of Triticale

  • They can utilize water and nutrients more efficiently than winter wheat
  • Seeding, seed rate season etc are as wheat
  • Nutrient and water requirement are similar to wheat and they are responding well when grown for grain
  • For forage the seed rate may be enhanced than wheat -80-100 kg in rainfed and drylands
  • For irrigated 110kg
  • Scope for further development

Alternate wheat cereals as food

  • Einkorn - AA
    •  T. monococcum
  • Emmer - AABB
    • T. turgidum L. group dicoccum
  • Spelt - AABBDD
    • T. spelta
  • Kamut  - AABB
    • T. turgidun ssp turanicum
  • Triticale – AABBRR
    • xTricosecale

Climate and soil requirements
            Climatic and soil requirements are similar to that of wheat. It can also be grown under relatively higher temperature and wet soil conditions. In light soils it is suitable under rainfed condition.
Cultivation practices
As rainfed crop

  • It is sown during October and matures in 110 – 130days.
  • The seeds are sown continuously with a row spacing of 20 -30 cm.
  • The seed rate is 75 – 100 kg/ha.
  • Depth of sowing should be 8 to 9 cm.
  • The crop is matured with 40:40:0 kg NPK/ha.

Under irrigated condition,

  • It is sown during middle of November and matures in 120 – 150days.
  • Seed requirement is 125 – 150 kg/ha. Seeds are dibbled at 15 to 20 cm row spacing continuously at 5 - 8 cm depth. The crop is given with 5-7 irrigation.
  • The crop is matured with 150:60:40 kg NPK/ha.

Harvesting, threshing and grain storage practices are similar to wheat.

Multiple choice questions

  1. Triticale is a cross between ___________
    a. Wheat & Maize     b. Wheat & Rice   c. Wheat & Rye
  2. Mention the man made cereal ________
    a. Triticale               b. Oats             c. Barley
  3. Majority of triticale cultivars are________
    a. awnless              b. awned                       c. both
  4. Sowing time for rainfed triticale is ________
    a. October b. June            c. May
  5. Seeds of rainfed triticale is sown in a row spacing of
    a. 10-20cm                  b. 20-30 cm              c. 50-60cm
  6. Seed rate of rainfed triticale is
    a. 100-150kg               b. 75-100kg              c. 50-60kg
  7. Seed rate of irrigated triticale is
    a. 100-150kg               b. 125-150kg            c. 75-100kg

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