Training has become an inseparable part of HRD. It has become one of the components, which enables any institution to churn out its employees as the most productive and most suitable ones.
Training – Definitions

  1. Training is the art of increasing the knowledge and skill of an    employee for doing a particular job. 
  2. Training is a learning process, which seeks a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  3. Training is the process of aiding employees to gain effectiveness           in their present or future work through the development of           appropriate habits of thought, action, skills, knowledge and attitude (Milton Mall, 1980).
  4. Training is the process of changing employee behaviour, attitudes,         or opinion through some type of guided experience (Krietner, 1989).
  5. Training is a systematic process of changing the behavior,          knowledge and or motivation of present employees to improve the             match between employee characteristic and employment requirement (Milkovich and Boudreau, 1998)

Need for training
The process of training has caught up mainly in industries. This can be attributed to the sudden and competitive change that is occurring in the world. However, the needs for training can be fixed down to the following:

  1. Rapid changes in technologies and jobs people do.
  2. Immediate and long term skill shortage
  3. Changes in the expectation and composition of work force
  4. Competition and market pressure for improvement in quality of products and services.

Training Process
In case of training, the focus will be on a person-on-the job-in the organization. Whereas in the case of training process, the focus will be both at the starting point and at the end with difference. The application of what a person has learned during training process is called the effectiveness of training.
The training process has three phases as follows:

  1. Pre-training
  2. Training
  3. Post-training
  4. Pre-training phase
  5. Pre-training process starts with understanding the situation, which calls for behavior that is more effective.
  6. Key aspect of the process is analysis of situation and job on which improved performance is to be achieved.
  7. Pre-training begins with description of the job to be changed by it.
  8. The technical requirement of the job is not enough but also knowledge on operational description of the job is required so that the training programme can be designed to meet out those requirements.
  9. The second aspect is the organization's receptivity to more effective behaviour of the trained people. How far the organization would respond to the change in knowledge and skill of the trainee after he returns from training is also to be considered.
  10. Who feels the need for this new behaviour? Is it his immediate superior of the organization itself or the trainee himself has to be taken into account for an effective training programme.
  11. Training phase
  12. Most of the training programmes would be for a session or an evening course or a residential program.
  13. In the training program, the trainee is exposed to a new subject matter, new people, new atmosphere and the participant would be at unease for a while, later when the subject which would be useful and  stimulating is taught the participant would focus his attention on the subject of his interest and would be in line with other participants.
  14. There would be several questions in his mind, such that he is lacking, the skill required for his job or is it an opportunity given for his sincere work in the organization or is it a plan of the organization to keep him away from the organization so that it would implement the programme which he had strongly opposed.
  15. With all such questions in his mind, there will be no guarantee that the trainee will learn what he has chosen to learn. His mind would deviate and he would learn something of his interest from the training program provided. This error in selection would be due to the lack of necessary capabilities of the trainee or irrelevant training design and methodology followed by that training institution etc.,
  16. Finally after overcoming all the hurdles in the initial stage of training programme, the participant would explore in training situation what interests him the more. After exploring, if he finds it useful he tries it again and checks for its effectiveness and satisfaction. There would be several trials repeatedly.
  17. If he is satisfied with the results, he decides to incorporate it in his organization, but if he finds it to be not useful he discards it and tries some other variant, in some cases he may discontinue his learning.
  18. Post-training phase
  19. Here the situation changes, the participant goes back to his work place, meets his colleagues, family members etc. He goes prepared with some anticipations, as he had been away from them for a while and also had come back learning some new ideas.
  20. Newly learned skills undergo modifications to fit in with the work situation. If the organization were encouraging and helping, the participant would use his training for the betterment of his organization. Some organization would offer support to the participants to have contact with the training institution even after the training program.
  21. On the other hand, if the organization resented his absence and if his table is loaded with work, he would feel extra burden and would work to make up for lost time. He would loose his interest to make use of his training and the contact with the training institution is also broken off.

Training process – models
There are several models for training processes, of which there are three important models.
1.Simple model of training process
2.Elaborated model of training process
3.Spiral model of training process
Training Strategy
Effective training calls, in the first place, for clarity of objectives and means. In that respect it is just like a manufacturing process, both the ends and means must be appropriate to the purpose. Relating them demands clear specifications for each part of the training task, including the resources of time, skill, and facilities required for it. Ensuring this is a responsibility of the first order.
It is necessary to consider four strategic questions, which shall be examined in turn. The first and second are of external strategies,

  1. Establishing training goals
  2. Defining training specifications
  3. The next two are outcomes of internal strategy
  4. Organizing the training inputs and
  5. Improving the training institution

I. External strategy
External strategy is concerned with two kinds of questions. The first is what are the training goals, that is, the changes to be effected? The second is, that are the number and kinds of people who therefore need to be trained and resources of time, skill and facilities required for this particular training.

  1. Establishing training goals

            Training institutions don't set any goal. They set tasks to work on goals which training can help to reach. Two strategic questions are asked in establishing training goals. 1. Are the goals realistic? and  2. Is the training input envisaged in the development - also realistic? There are two steps before setting up the training course. 1. After a change is decided, is training that much necessary? and 2. Defining the part that training can play in change.
While a training plan provides a structure for training, the design of a training programme provides its content. A training plan provides broad parameters within which training is required to take place in accordance with the assessed training needs of extension personnel within the frame work of extension training policy. The design of the training programme operationalises the training plan and provides actual training. A well designed training programme will go a long way in ensuring success of training intervention. As a corollary, an ill-designed training programme is deemed to be a failure. The following are the steps in designing a training programme:
A. Objectives of training programmes
The first step in the design of a training programme is a clear statement of the objectives of the training programme. These objectives have to be based on the Training Needs Assessment (TNA) of extension personnel and stated, in order of priority, from general to specific objectives. These objectives have to be stated in terms of knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Attributes, which the trainee will gain at the end of the training programme.
A clear enunciation of objectives of training programme will enable the trainees to have a clear idea as to what should they expect from training.
At a simple level of treatment the objectives of a training programme fall under two categories, namely, General behavioural objectives, and Specific Behavioural objectives. Both types of objectives are required to be stated in the objectives of a training programme.
At a more sophisticated level of treatment, following the Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, the training objectives can be classified into three classes of Cognitive Objectives, Psycho-Motor Objectives, and Affective Objectives, and their sub-classess.
If the design of a training programme is conceptualised to consist of (a) objectives, (b) learning experience and (c) evaluation, then the objectives provide the base upon which subsequent edifice of  learning experience and evaluation could be built and hence their importance in the design of a training programme.
B. Skill - Mix
The second step in the design of training programme is determination of appropriate skill-mix for different levels of extension personnel.
Katz postulate three types of skills for a manager, namely (i) Technical Skills, (ii) Human Skills, and (iii) Conceptual Skills as proposed by Misra (1990) .
Fig.36. Skill mixes for the different levels of Extension Personnel

Source: Misra, D.C. (1990), New Dimension in Extension Training

            For example, field-level personnel like Village Level Extension workers and Agricultural Extension Officers require technical skills in ample measure, human skills in fairly good measure and conceptual skills in moderate measure.
C. Curriculum Development
The next step in the design of a training programme is development of appropriate training curriculum. Curriculum is required to be developed  for two reasons. Specific curriculum is required to be developed for a specific training course which is organised in response to assessed training needs of extension personnel which emerges out of the changing needs of farmers. Since no ready made curriculum exists for the purpose, specific curriculum is required to be developed for a specific training course which has a specific target group. Its challenge lies in the fact that it is interdisciplinary.Curriculum development is required to anticipate future needs.
Components of a Standard Curriculum
Course objectives
Achievement Targets
Course Structure
Course Contents 

A training program can be totally successful only if effective exercises have been worked out previously. Attention should be paid on the physical setup, rapport building and content of the program. Programs that look gorgeous on paper are worthless if the trainer doesn't have delivery skills to carryout the design requirements.

Steps to conduct an active training programme :
1.Preparing yourself mentally
Feeling comfort  with the course content
Thorough preparation well in advance
Preparation of material activities for training program
Course materials, manuals, rooms, audio visual equipments etc. and get connected with the participants
If a question is asked and you do not know the answer give it as a group exercise; another way is to write them down and promise to find the answer.
Repeating a course may be a bored one to the trainer but not to a new trainee - Focus your attention on the participants and not on oneself and make opportunities to learn from their experience through discussions.

2) Arranging the physical environment
The physical set up at first the participants receive will create permanent impressions of the program.
The seating arrangements should depend on many factors like number of participants, method of speech, and the like.
In case the program has little of writing work, the participants can get rid of tables and they can arrange the chairs to their comfort.
In other case, if small subgroups should be formed, care should be taken to leave enough space so that one group does not disturb another group.         
A well-known arrangement is horseshoe type. This can be modified into a square or a circle. All these arrangements favour group discussions with face to face contact with each participant.
These arrangements can be formed with the help of the participants themselves for their own comfort.

3) Greeting participants and establishing program
The best and most desired start is a good welcome address. The trainer should be able to reach the mind of each person, make each feel good in the new situation, allow his feelings to flow without any hesitation. Hence a trainer should ensure that his program should have a good greet and hence to build rapport with the participants.
A short refreshment before the actual training enables participants to mix well among themselves. Trainer himself can build relationship by knowing their names and making them feel comfortable. During the opening session he/she should introduce the participants to each of them and he himself should be introduced with a touch of  un boastful higher knowledge.
There are number of wordings which can be addressed. To mention a few 'I have got something for you'
This should make a feeling among the participants that they have a person with much greater knowledge and experience to his credit.
"I've been through this too"
This makes a 'we' feeling among the participants and the trainer. The participants feel that the trainer can understand one's problems and this workload so this helps to bring out their own experience in this field.
"I admire you"
This greeting puts the participants on a higher stand. This is the way one can express one’s admiration over the participant's qualities and deed. It may be on very simple actions of theirs but such an admiration heartens the people to a much higher extent.
4. Getting the best from the first 30 minutes of trainers
The first 30 minutes of any classroom period is the most crucial period which a trainer should not trample upon. It is called the 'grave period' according to Napien and Gershenfeld (1983) during which any over hostility or antagonism will be submerged under a veneer of politeness, watchfulness and reserve. It is during this time that the participants perceive  what role they expect to play during the training program, what they intent to accomplish during the course.
Begin the class at the time intended without creating impatience among the participants, once competence should be made known to the members. One should make himself compatible with the group and create trust. The trainee should be clear on what activities are there for the participants and how and when they can get connected to their home town.
5. Reviewing the agenda
In the beginning moments of the program, one should be made clear of what is going to be done i.e.,  What is expected of the programme and What is expected of the participants. The training objectives should be given in writing and these should be explained clearly. The list of what is to be accomplished should also be presented. They should be informed of how the program will be done with indications of the stay place, food arrangements, telephone messages etc. A content outline and a description of the activities designed should also be given.
6. Inviting feedback
After reviewing the agenda, one must not fail to get the feedback on the agenda. This gives the participants an opportunity to give their views or to tell what they expect more of the programs. The simplest approach is to ask directly "Does this m match what you hope to gain from this program?". "Is  there anything you would like to add to it?".
The feedback helps the trainer to change his program if feasible to the requirements of the participants and remains compatible with them. Otherwise, the programme will be a waste with a content not interested to the participants.
After all these steps, one can readily and confidently enter into the actual training programme.


Training Need
Johnson ( 1967) defined training need as matching in terms of what is going on now and what should go on now (or) in the future and the gap if any, between these two gives due insights into the kind and amount of training need.
David Deshler ( 1979) identifies four dimensions of need, four ways of viewing need. The first is felt need, the view from the perspective of the needers when asked what  they want . 'the second dimension is expressed need, the need that people express when they sign up for. pay for or participate in services. The third dimension is normative need.
This is the option from the perspective of experts or public policy. And, the last is comparative need, an inequity in the availability of services, all other things being equal.
Dugan Laird (1978) a well known training expert, commented that a training need exists when an individual lacks the knowledge and skills to perform an assigned task satisfactorily.
Training Need Assessment
Before organizing training programme it is necessary to determine correctly the training needs of the group of personnel. The training needs may be determined in three ways.
First, from an analysis of organisational change, the organization must change if it is successfully to meet new conditions and so must the operations conducted within the organisation, 'this means that the people who operate the systems, procedures and role of the organisation must be trained to accept new jobs and new skills.
Second, from analysis of work problems as inefficiencies and problems within the organisation indicate that the worker has been inadequately trained. Thirdly, training needs can be derived from an analysis of man power wastage data.
Comparing the performance achieved in the job with the performance demanded by the job needs can derive the individual training. If the worker's performance is less than that demanded by the job, then a potential training need has been
revealed. Training needs could be in the areas of skill, knowledge and change in attitudes.
Individual requires training to overcome problems as well as to avoid creating problematic situation in the organisations. It has been observed that most of the problematic situations are people -centered. When individuals have to learn new skills, replace incorrect habits with productive habits, modify attitudes and acquire additional knowledge, training is one of the best management tools available.
Training in an organisation is essentially a learning process in which learning opportunities the managerial purposefully structures, personnel and training staff, working in collaboration or by external agents acting on their behalf.
The aim of the process is to develop in the organisation's employees the knowledge, skill and attitudes that have been defined as necessary for the effective performance of their work and hence for the achievement of organisational aim and objectives by the most effective means.
Table 13.Components and sub-components of Training





Knowledge (K)

Knowledge of Extension Methods



Subject Matter Knowledge



Knowledge of Clients' Problems and their Solutions



Knowledge of Farms, farm Families, and Farming Systems, and



Knowledge of Farm Economics, Inputs Supply and Marketing


Skills (S)

Communication Skills



Technological Skills



Demonstration Skills



Organisational Skills



Training Skills, and



Diagnostic Skills


Attitudes (A)

Attitude for Serving Clients



Attitude for Acquiring Latest Knowledge and Technical Know-How



Attitude for Problem - solving



Attitude for Field Work, and



Attitude for Self-Development


Attributes (Os)

Personality Traits









Experience, and




Training Objectives
Any programme whether it be training or extension work should have objectives which are to be achieved. There are four types of objectives which are as follows:


Type of objectives

What it should tell us



General direction of efforts, order of priorities



How much is aimed


Operational objectives

Who has to do, what in order to attain the targets (in terms of clientele)


Training objective

Who are the learners and what learning products are required

Principles involved in Training
Training should be based on the Principles of,
1. Achievement of organisational objectives
2. Training need assessed
3. Training objectives - Expected learning behaviour
4. Flexibility
5. Level of the learners
6. Past experiences - existing knowledge
7. Co-operative / Collective process-active participation of learners
8. Teaching - learning process
9. Continuous process
10. Informed options - alternatives
11. Learning varies from individual
12. Individual creation of learning environment
Building up of a Training Programme
Any programme whether it be extension activity / Training activity, it has the following activities.
Trainer Roles
The various trainer roles can be seen in three distinct phases : pre-training, training and post-training.
a.  Pre - Training
1.   Training Designer
The role of identifying and translating learning needs into objectives, content and designing the programme.

  1. collecting and identifying learning needs
  2. listing objectives
  3. working out related contents/methods/materials/exercises
  4. sequencing the contents/activities
  5. identifying resource persons
  6. preparing and selecting learning materials

2.  Administrator/Organiser
The role of ensuring and meticulously planning in advance the facilities, learning materials, required equipment, participants and other related components of the training event and the coordination of the programme logistics.

  1. choosing venue and time
  2. selecting and scheduling facilities
  3. regularly communicating with the trainees regarding the programme plans
  4. identifying and arranging the needed support system at the training venue
  5. scheduling the time of co-trainees and resource persons
  6. distributing training materials
  7. arranging resources

b.  During Training
1.   Facilitator
The role of guiding the learning process so that individuals learn from each other and the group functions effectively.

  1. eliciting opinions
  2. enhancing participation
  3. focusing trainees' attention on their potentialities
  4. summarising and synthesising information
  5. organising groups such that issues and needs are addressed
  6. intervening in the process

2.  Instructor
The role of presenting information and concepts, clarify objectives, creating and sustaining a structured learning environment and helping generate new learning.

  1. providing information and concepts
  2. directing structured learning - role-plays, simulations, games and discussions
  3. using learning aids - films, audio-tapes, video-tapes and other materials

3.  Counsellor
The role of supporting and guiding individual trainees during periods of stress and strain and helping trainees to assess their potentialities and personal competencies, so as to enable them to reflect, grow and change.

  1. developing a rapport with trainees
  2. showing genuine interest in directing their process of growth
  3. communicating on a one-to-one basis
  4. organising sessions to enhance self-confidence and self-esteem of some individuals

4.  Recorder
The role of maintaining records of the process and content to enable monitoring, analysis and documentation.

  1. observing keenly both flow of content and process
  2. maintaining detailed notes on a daily basis

5.   Evaluator
The role of assessing the impact of training programme on the trainees.

  1. planning evaluation mechanisms
  2. using written aswell as verbal reports to assess an event
  3. utilising the evaluation design to assess individual changes in behaviour, attitudes and knowledge
  4. forming steering committees to assist in day-to-day evaluations
  5. conducting mid-term reviews
  6. sharing reflections and analysis with co-trainer
  7. providing relevant feedback

6.  Organiser/Administrator/Manager
The role of managing all the related tasks during the programme

  1. managing time and space for each session
  2. solving problems related to accommodation, food, etc.
  3. organising reservations, departures/arrivals, reimbursements, etc.
  4. managing the learning situation (session timing, breaks, off-time,etc.)

c.  Post - Training
1.  Report - Writer
The role of preparing a report of the training programme.

  1. organising the relevant information for the report-writing
  2. disseminating the reports to all participants, and others interested

2.   Follow-up Coordinator
The role of continuing contacts with individuals and their organisations to assess impact of training on the organisations and individuals and providing the necessary follow-up support whenever needed.

    • communicating at regular intervals
    • inviting feedback from both organisations and individuals
    • collating learning needs for the next event, if so designed
    • providing support in the field


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