AEXT 392 :: Lecture 07 :: MASS CONTACT METHODS

1. Radio: A Popular Communication Medium
Historic features:
The Madras Presidency Club pioneered ratio broadcasting in India in 1924. The club worked a broadcasting service for three years, but owing to the financial difficulties, gave it up in 1927. In the same year, some enterprising businessmen in Bombay started the Indian broadcasting Company with stations at Bombay and Calcutta. This company failed in 1930. In 1932 the government of India, took over the broadcasting. A separate department of known as Indian Broadcasting service was opened. Later it was designated as 'All India Radio' and was placed under a separate Ministry - the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
Broadcasting in India is a national service, developed and operated by the Government of India. All India Radio (also known as Akashvani) operates this service, over a network of broadcasting stations located all over the country.Starting with six broadcasting stations in 1947, the AIR today has a network of 195 broadcasting stations and 183 full-fledged stations. These stations grouped into five zones, are the following.
Radio network
North Zone
Ajmer, Allahabad, Aligarh, Bikaner, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jullundar, Lucknow, Mathura, Rampur, Simla, Udaipur and Varnasi.
East Zone
Agarthala, Aizawl, Bhagalpur, Calcutta, Cuttack, Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Imphal, Kohima, Siliguri, Tawang and Tezu.
West Zone
Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Bhuj, Mumbai, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Nagpur, Panaji, Parbani, Pune, Raipur, Rajkot and Sangli.
South Zone
Alleppey, Bangalore, Bhadravati, Calicut, Coimbatore, Cuddapa, Dharwar, Gulbarga, Hyderabad, Chennai, Mysore, Pondicherry, Port Blair, Trichy, Tirunelveli, Thoothkudi, Madurai, Trichur, Trivandrum, Vijayawada and Vishakhapatnam.
Kashmir zone
Jammu, Leh and Srinagar
There are three auxiliary studio centres at Vadodara, Darbhanga and Shantineketan and two Vividh Bharathi/commercial centers, one at Chandigarh and the other at Kanpur. These cover all the important cultural and linguistic regions of the country.
AIR's programme pattern combines three main elements

  • a national channel providing programmes of countrywide interest and significance.
  • a zonal service form each of the four metropolitan centers (Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Chennai)
  • and regional services from individual stations each catering to the needs and interests of its respective area.

            To enable AIR to reach all sections of the Indian people, its programmes in the Home Service are broadcast in 20 principal languages. In addition, the External services of AIR beam their programmes to listeners all over the world in 24 languages.
AIR now broadcasts a total of 239 new bulletins a day, with duration of 32 hours and 17 minutes. Of these 67 are central bulletins broadcast from Delhi in 19 languages, with daily duration of 10 hours and 3 minutes; 57 external bulletin (from Delhi) broadcasts in 24 languages for a duration of 7 hours 14 minutes and 15 regional bulletins from 34 regional centers broadcast in 22 languages and 34 tribal dialects with total duration of 15 hours every day.
The major source of news for AIR is its correspondents at home and abroad, the news agencies and the monitoring services. AIR has a total of 206 correspondents. Of these 111 are part time correspondents.

  • From Feb. 28, 1998, 'AIR on Phone' service is available.
  • AIR is now hooked to INTERNET for on line information service.
  • The present national coverage of AIR is 90.6% by area and 97.3% by population.

2. Television: A Powerful Communication Medium
Television is one of the most powerful audio-visual media of mass communication, which combines all the benefits of other mass media such as radio, newspaper and film. It is an effective medium of dissemination and diffusion of information, entertaining, educating and influencing the thought and attitude of rural viewers. Television being an audio-visual medium, the message reaches to an individual with the help of ears and eyes and hence gets a lasting impact. The word television comes from Greek word meaning "seen from a far". In most of the developing countries, it is used as an instructional tool for distance education, supplementing formal education, developing psychomotor skills, adult education, and eradicating illiteracy. Television is used as a medium of mass communication for dissemination of agro-information and technical know-how to "have-nots".
Historic features
Television started as a modest affair in India on September 15, 1969 when All India Radio set upon experimental Television service in Delhi. It was soon converted into full - fledged telecasting station. Television set up was delinked from All India Radio and under the name 'Doordarshan' given the status of full-fledged Directorate with effect from April 1, 1976. Doordarshan has at present seven Kendras located at Delhi, Bombay, Chennai, Calcutta, Srinagar, Amritsar and Lucknow besides three base production centers at Delhi, Cuttack and Hyderabad.
The most momentous development in television in India is the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) which was inaugurated on August 1, 1975. It is the result of an agreement between India and the United States concluded in 1969. Under this agreement, ATS-6 satellite was made available to India for a period of one year. 
Following the successful completion of the one year of Satellite Instructional Television Experiment on July 31, 1976 it was decided to continue terrestrial programmes for at least 40 per cent of the SITE villages. Terrestrial transmitters were  set up at six locations. viz. Jaipur, Raipur, Muzaffapur, Sambalpur, Hyderabad and Gulbarga.
In 1984, a second channel was added to Delhi to provide an alternative viewing options. 1993 marked the linking of four terrestrial transmitters through satellite to provide DD - 2 Metro Entertainment channel for urban audience .
In 1997-98, Doordarshan reached 87% of the population and 70% of the area of the country through a network of 897 terrestrial transmitters. It has production studios at 42 cities. There are 53 other transmitters giving terrestrial support to the other channels and Doordarshan uses a large no of transponders on the Indian National Satellite(INSAT).
Doodarshan's primary viewership is of the order of 350 million. Doordarshan telecasts programmes more than 1021 hours every week on its primary service.

Steps in developing a television programme from topic to televised presentation:
The following method of developing a television programme is not the only way, but offers briefly a logical systematic procedure.
Prepare your TV programme the way that is easiest for you and yet gives you an effective television programme.

  1. Select a subject matter field, which is, felt-need based from rural audience point of view.
  2. Choose a phase of that subject matter field. This may be called topic. It may also need further limitation.
  3. Determine the main point to be made in the programme. List all the items that you will make to support this point.
  4. Get a picture of the overall programme in your mind before you proceed further.
  5. Divide the programme into important steps, and list these steps in logical order.
  6. Consult resource material or a resource person if you need more information or if you need to check the information for accuracy.
  7. Select a format, or a method of presenting the television programme. This may be a demonstration; an illustrated report; a dramatic presentation; an interview; a forum or a variety formats; using several of these methods combined.
  8. Determine the need for other participants and contact possible participants
  9. Determine the audio and visual aids, equipment, materials and properties that best show the points to be made. Make a list of all the visuals.
  10. Make an outline of the programme. Divide a sheet of paper into two columns. In the left column, write the things you want to show, in the right column put the things you want to say or talk about. Label the left column 'Video' and the right column 'Audio'. Much of the audio column for the demonstration type of programme and for the illustrated report will be taken from the steps listed earlier in the planning (point 5). The visuals will be fitted to this and will be indicated in the video column. The things you want to show and the things you want to say about them should be written opposite each other on the page.

It is often necessary to use a special device to get from one segment of the programme to another. This is called a transition. It may be done visually, orally, or both. It ties the whole programme together, giving it the polished, professional touch, and results in a programme that flows smoothly. Transitions must be indicated in the script if used.
With the opening and the closing of the programme including the action and talk that will take place, put an attention getter in the opening and make the end equally strong.

  1. At the extreme left of the page indicate the amount of time in minutes and seconds you think it will take to do each important step of the programme.
  2. Correct the outline script in view of the programme producer's suggestions. Provide a copy of the script to programme producer, the participants and others as needed.
  3. If give-away material (a publication) is to be offered, check to make sure that enough copies are available to meet the expected requests.
  4. Accumulate the audio aids; visual aids, materials properties and equipment, and lay all out in the order each will be used. Check again to make sure all of the visuals are at hand.
  5. Rehearse the programme at home, office or some other convenient place. Time the rehearsal for the total length and for each important segment. Add or subtract material to fit the script into the desired time. Rehearse the programme as it will be done at the station.
  6. Arrive at the Doordarshan Kendra well ahead of telecast. Acquaint the participants with the TV equipment and set, and introduce them to the programme producer. Set up your equipment and rehearse the programme without cameras. If time permits and facilities are available, rehearse the programme with cameras.
  7. Make any last-minute changes that are necessary and relax until the programme is to be telecast.
  8. While the programme is being 'telecast', concentrate on the subject, not on the way you are or are not looking at the camera, moving your hands, and the like. This should be taken care of in rehearsal. Attempt to get an informal approach and to treat your audience as one individual, not as a group of thousands.
  9. Present the programme as it was outlined and as the programme producer expects it. Trust the programme producer and the technical crew to produce as good a show as they possibly can.
  10. If something unexpected happens or you make a mistake, or drop something, do not let it bother you. Recognize the mistake and continue your programme as planned.


Points to be remembered while recording television programme: 

  1. Facial expressions are very important. A smile on the face makes a lot of difference.
  2. Gestures should be used effectively in the communication process.
  3. Unnecessary movements should be avoided as these distract the attention of the viewers. Check the habits of playing with a paperweight, pen, chalk or scratching your head or cleaning your eyes or nose. Avoid those movements also, which will express your nervousness.
  4. Face the camera while talking to the viewers. Look into the lens of the camera for having an eye to eye contact with the viewers. Eye contact binds the attention of the viewers.  However, this does not mean that one should continuously stare at the camera. Acknowledge the presence of the other participants of the programme by looking at them from time to time.
  5. Neat physical appearance is very important. Come to the programme well dressed.
  6. Visual aids, samples, models, working models, specimens etc. make your programme interesting. Visual aids should be precise and drawn with sharp colours. Graphic material, charts, slides, filmstrip etc. should also be used to make the programme more interesting.
  7. Pronunciation should be very clear and be audible. Proper speed should be maintained while speaking. Proper word should be selected to communicate the message. Avoid fad words and slangs, metaphors, phrases, jargon and flowery language should not be used.
  8. Do not have apologetic opening tone. Let your voice show emotions. Do not sound weary and depressed. Let your voice have vitality, vigor, energy and enthusiasm.

Radio talks
I. Treatment or form

  • Attention getting opening or introduction
  • Use of local dialect
  • Write for the ear

II. Delivery

  • Just talk to people, don't lecture.
  • Use local dialects, colloquial language
  • Summarize – stress the key points.

III. Subject matter

  • Timely and significant
  • Easily understood

IV. Adapted to local condition

  • Make use of data from local demonstrations and experiences of farmers.
  • It should contain information, place, statements etc. on local people

3. Flash card

  • One massage in each card
  • Invariably all cards must possess pictorial /symbolic representation of message
  • The letters / pictorial representation etc. in each card must be visible to all.
  • Organise the cards in proper sequence and number them
  • Rehearse the presentation
  • Give local examples
  • Be enthusiastic and develop a story
  • Summarise

4. Posters
Each letter in the word 'POSTER' must carry the following meaning
P - Part of the programme
O – Objective
S – Single idea, simple words/pictures
T – Tells the story at a glance
E – Effect on Audience
R – Results and Evaluation

  • It should have a definite, significant message.
  • It should follow ABC principles
  • Suitable colour combination must be followed
  • Title and content must be related
  • Symbolic representation of the message is preferred
  • Posters must be placed at a stretch so that viewer can remember the message
  • Criss-cross display of posters 1-2 weeks prior to the probable use of message will remind the passer- by about the recommendation.

5. Hoardings

  • There must be only one single and significant idea.
  • The key point must be appealing to all farmers.
  • It should be placed in such a way that viewers from two sides can look and observe.
  • The hoarding must be installed at the point where the block/division limit starts so that the major crop/recommendation to be covered in the area by the extension agency may be highlighted in the hoarding.

7. Film show

  • Preview the film
  • Note the main teaching points, difficult words etc. that are to be clarified to the audience.
  • Relate the lesson to their own self-interest.
  • Write questions on the chalkboard if possible, and explain that these questions will be answered in the film.
  • Obsolete information should be avoided by supplementing with latest information
  • Select the film, which is relevant to the area/people.

8. Exhibition

  • Consider the time, audience and immediate purpose.
  • Limit to one idea per exhibit
  • Develop a plan or model for exhibition
  • Each exhibit must be an attention getting device
  • Issue literature to the audience on the exhibits.
  • Exhibits must be properly labelled and self-explanatory.
  • Watch public (farmers) reactions and accordingly redesign the exhibits.
  • Use local materials (specimens, photographs depicting the local happenings etc.) since such materials will have a greater significance to lay people.

9. Campaigns

  • Enlist the cooperation of local leaders, contact farmers and local officials. Arrange a meeting involving them and assess the felt need of the local people to identify the suitable topic for the campaign.
  • Adequate publicity about venue, time and topic must be given.
  • Arrange for skill demonstrations on such of those topics so that the 'how' aspects can be imparted.
  • A diagnostic skill team may be organised to offer appropriate remedy measures for the farmers' immediate problem.
  • A mass programme may be organised so that all the farmers can understand the practicability of the recommendations
  • Arrange a slide or film show on the important theme of the campaign in the evening.
  • Arrange an exhibition with much emphasis on local problems and practicable solutions that can easily be followed by all categories of farmers.

10. Art of Public Speaking

            "If all my possessions were taken from me, with one exception, I would choose to keep the power of speech; for by it, I would soon regain all the rest".
Daniel Tebster
Almost every man longs for the power of speech. He knows that is one of the very few tools for personal success. It is the only accomplishment which can gain him quick and secure recognition. As an extension worker the power of speech, an effective way of communicating ideas to the clientele system, is an indispensable mechanism. The art of addressing the gathering provides him the following benefits.

  • Develop a capacity for human relations
  • Become socially welcome
  • Bring individual qualities to the fore front
  • It makes the mind methodical and ensure
  • Helps him to make decisions confidently
  • Participate in an organisation
  • Acquires qualities like enthusiasm, sincerity and courage of one's conviction.

            As an Extension worker, we are more concerned in the Transfer of Technology. In other words, we have to communicate effectively to the audience, to ensure the fullest adoption f the latest technology. The three vital elements in the speech are (1) audience (2) content of message, (3) expression.
Our audiences are heterogeneous in nature having varied characters in respect of age, education, income, social status etc. Their socio-psychological perceptions also significantly from one another. It is the prime duty of an extension worker to satisfy every-one without causing concern to any one sector or group.
Secondly, the message is important. The message should be simple, acceptable, understandable and within the reach of the people. Authenticity of the message is vital in order to create confidence on the part of the audience 'thirdly the expression of the speaker. It has got many factors to be discussed. The different manners involved in the art of addressing should be considered. The following paragraph highlights the different points in the art of public speaking.
a. Dress
Dress should be appropriate to the occasion. Let the dress be acceptable to the audience.
b. Stage Mannerism

  • Sit calmly at the stage
  • Be relaxed and cool
  • Acknowledge  the chair person when you are called to speak
  • Acknowledge the audience.
  • Don't talk among your friends in the stage. That will distract the attention of the audience from the speaker.

c. Mike Mannerism
There are three types of mike namely (1) Unidimensional, (2) Dimensional, (3) Omni dimensional. In the Rural situation, we always used to get the unidimensional mike.

  • Don't hold the mike with your hand.
  • Let your head be in line with the head of the mike.
  • Tilt your head gently while you want to see the audience seating in the side rows.
  • Don't talk too loudly to the mike.
  • Check the audibility of the mike before commencing the talk.
  • Don't yawn in front of the mike.

d. Gestures
They are movements of some parts of the body. The movement of the hand, a wave of the arm, raising of the eyebrows, a wink, turning of the head etc., is all gestures. Gestures are spontaneous and give it to the talk. They are the physical and mental tonic to the audience. A speaker without gestures is equivalent to an unfurled flag pole. There are different types of gestures which gives the purpose of using it.

  • Gestures of direction
  • Gestures of size, shape and description
  • Gestures of feeling and intensity
  • Facial expressions

Gestures and expressions should synchronize with each other, otherwise it will be a mockery in front of the audience.
Don't over do gestures. Gestures, which go beyond certain limit, are called gesticulation. Gesticulations tend to show the nervousness of the speaker.
e. Postures:
A good posture suggests that the speaker is alert and poised. A good standing pose is sufficient.
f. Eye Contact
It is looking squarely at people in the audience. The eyes sweep round from person to person, section to section , forward and back and side to side. Look at the audience makes them fee] you are interested in them. It establishes rapport with them. It devotes confidence in the speaker. It prevents any deviation on the part of audience. It keeps the audience attentive all the way.
g. Voice
A good voice with proper voice modulation is an asset for good public speaker. By regular practice this can be attained.
h. Pause
It is the interval between the words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, ideas and section. It is not possible to speak without a pause.
Types of Pauses

  1. Breathe pause - It is for the purpose of taking breathe.
  2. Sense pause - It is for the purpose of making the meaning clear.

General hints for good speech

  1. Be alert and attentive
  2. Be thoughtful to another speaker
  3. Attitude of good will
  4. Begin with a good and attractive lead
  5. Arrange your thoughts in logical order
  6. Give local and suitable example
  7. Support your talk with adequate evidences
  8. Use simple, local languages
  9. Be time conscious
  10. Acknowledge the chairman and the audience
  11. Summarise at the end
  12. If possible use appropriate visual aids
  13. Quote relevant proverbs or quotable quotes
  14. Conclude with grace


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