Storage structures
Storage – to maintain the quality of grain after harvest for

  • Maintaining the supply of grain
  • Taking advantage of higher prices

Two methods of grain storage

  • Bag storage
  • Loose in bulk storage

The choice based on the local factors

  • Type of grain
  • Duration of storage
  • Value of grain
  • Climate
  • Transport system
  • Cost and availability of labour
  • Cost and availability of bags
  • Incidents of rodents and certain types of insects

Bag and bulk storages

Bag storage

Bulk storage

Flexibility of storage

Inflexible storage

Partly mechanical


slow handling

Rapid handling

Considerable spillage

Little spillage

Low capital cost

High capital cost

High operating cost

Low operating cost

High rodent loss potential

Low rodent loss potential

Reinfestation occurs

Little protection against reinfestation

Traditional storage structures- (Bulk type)
Bukkhari type

  • Cylindrical in shape
  • Made of mud or combination of mud and split bamboo
  • Raised above the ground by wooden or masonry platform
  • Floor
  • Walls
  • Roof
  • Improved type – same structure
  • Rat proofing cones
  • Grains – wheat, gram, paddy, maize and sorghum
  • Capacity – 3.5 – 18 t

Kothar type

  • Store – paddy, maize, sorghum, wheat
  • Capacity – 9-35 t
  • Structure – box
  • Improved Kothar – 5cm thick wooden planks and beams
  • No gap between the planks 

Morai type

  • Grains – paddy, maize, sorghum
  • Capacity – 3.5 – 18 t
  • Shape- inverted truncated cone

Modern storage structures

  • Bagged storage system
  • Silo storage system
  • Air tight storage system
  • Aerated storage system
  • Low temperature storage system
  • Controlled atmosphere storage system
  • Damp grain storage system with chemicals

Bagged storage system

  • Storage capacity is from 25 tonnes
  • Generally the length is about twice the width or greater
  • The entire structure should be moisture proof
  • Large size doors of 2.4 x 2.4 m and top ventilators
  • Each door is provided with a light overhanging hood
  • It should be provide with ventilators – having wire netting and shutter

Bag Storage structure

Damp proof floor
1) 15 cm thick layer of gravel and sand well rammed at the bottom
2) 12.5 cm thick layer of stone or brick ballast or double layer of brick
3) 10 cm thick layer of cement concrete (1:4:8)
4) 1.25 cm thick bitumen mixed with sand
5) 4 cm thick layer of cement concrete (1:2:4)
6) 2.5 cm thick layer of cement concrete (1: 1 1/2: 3)

The walls are made of bricks or stone laid either in lime mortar (1:2), cement mortar (1:6)
Thickness of the wall is either 37.5 or 45 cm
The height of the walls on which trusses are kept: 5.5 m
Either gabled or flat roof
Gabled roof is covered with corrugated sheet
Flat roof is more durable – either reinforced brick or concrete – 10 to 12.5 cm thick
The terracing on the roof is made of brick ballast, surkhi, and lime ( 3.5: 1:1)

1. Sealed door                 2. Floor                  3. Rat proof slab             4. Air proof roof

Modern Storage Godown

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